What is a Home Automation System?
Home automation system makes the operations of various home appliances more convenient and saves energy. With the energy saving concept, home automation or building automation makes life very simple nowadays. It involves automatic controlling of all electrical or electronic devices in homes or even remotely through wireless communication. Centralized control of lighting equipment, air conditioning and heating, audio/video systems, security systems, kitchen appliances and all other equipment used in home systems is possible with this system.
This system is mainly implemented by sensors, controlling devices and actuators as shown in the figure. The sensors detect light, motion, temperature and other sensing elements, and then send that data to the main controlling devices. These sensors can be thermocouples or thermistors, photodetectors, level sensors, pressure sensors, current transformers, IR sensors, etc., which need additional signal conditioning equipment to communicate with the main controller.
Controllers may be personal computers/laptops, touchpads, smartphones, etc., attached to the controlling devices like programmable-logic controllers that receive the information from the sensors, and based on the program, control the actuators. This program can be modified based on the load operations. The programmable controller allows connecting various sensors and actuators through various input and output modules whether they are analog or digital.
Actuators are the final controlling devices like limit switches, relays, motors, and other controlling mechanisms which finally control the home equipment. Communication plays an important role in this home automation system for the remote access of these operations. This smart home system also provides continuous monitoring through video surveillance with cameras, scheduling, and energy-saving operations. This is the best solution even for the elderly and the disabled persons to operate equipment.